UIP General Style Sheet

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Preferred Reference Materials

Merriam-Webster's Collegiate Dictionary (M-W), 11th edition or online, for spelling (first example)

The Chicago Manual of Style, 16th (CMOS-16) or 17th (CMOS-17) edition, for most other matters

AUTHORS: If you follow another, discipline-specific manual (AAA, APA, MLA) for your manuscript, indicate that style when you submit your manuscript.


If you use bibliographical endnotes (not parenthetical citations) and also have a comprehensive bibliography or list of works cited, you may use short versions of citations in all notes.

Alphabetize the bibliography letter-by-letter.

Change ampersand to "and" in titles and publishers' names.

Use only the first city of publication in notes and bibliography entries.

Do not include the state in publication data where it is obvious from the publisher's name (University of Illinois Press) or where the city is well known (Los Angeles).

Avoid "passim" and "ff."; cite specific pages.

Omit "Inc.," "Ltd.," and their equivalents (e.g., "S.A.").

Use DOIs or persistent links (permalinks, stable URLs, etc.) where available.

Keep URLs simple. Sometimes listing an article's author and title and the URL of the host's home page is enough for readers to locate the source. If there are no good options, URL shorteners are acceptable (tinyurl, goo.gl, bit.ly, etc.).

Do not enclose URLs in angle brackets or parentheses; do not italicize. See CMOS-16 section 14.7 or CMOS-17 section 14.12 regarding access dates.


Treat prose quotations of more than one hundred words or more than one paragraph as extracts (indented, without quotation marks at the start and end).

Treat verse quotations of more than four lines as extracts (indented, without quotation marks).

Do not start or end quotations with ellipses.

General Grammar and Punctuation


Use a comma after most opening adverbial phrases of three words or more, or to avoid ambiguity.

Use a comma before the conjunction in series of three or more items (known as the serial comma, series comma, Harvard comma, or Oxford comma).

In general, use a comma between independent clauses in compound sentence. See CMOS-16 section 6.28 or CMOS-17 section 6.22 for exceptions.

Do not use a comma before or after Jr., Sr., and similar abbreviations unless the name is inverted (Howell, Thurston, III).

In general, do not use a comma between verbs in compound predicates. See CMOS-16 section 6.29 or CMOS-17 section 6.23 for exceptions.

Use commas with nonrestrictive appositives, where the descriptive phrase applies to only one item:

  • Disney's fourth animated feature, Dumbo (Disney produced only one "fourth animated feature")

  • Oscar Wilde's novel, The Picture of Dorian Gray (Wilde wrote several plays but only one novel)

  • his wife, Rebecca (he has only one wife)

but omit commas with restrictive appositives, where the descriptive phrase could describe more than one item, and the name is required for identification:

  • the animated film Dumbo (Dumbo is not the only animated film that exists)

  • Carter Woodson's book The Mis-Education of the Negro (not Woodson's only book)

  • his sister Rebecca (he has more than one sister)


Compound words are hyphenated, closed, or open per CMOS and M-W.

Relative pronouns

Use that with restrictive clauses and which for nonrestrictive clauses (CMOS-16 section 6.22 or CMOS-17 section 6.27).


After a colon, capitalize the first letter only if more than one complete sentence follows. See CMOS-16 section 6.59 or CMOS-17 section 6.63 for exceptions.

Display Style (Titles and Headings)

Use initial capital or lowercase letters for your chapter titles, chapter subtitles, and subheadings according to CMOS-16 section 8.157 or CMOS section 8.157.

Follow the same rules for titles of works you mention or cite.


Spell out numbers or use numerals per CMOS chapter 9.

Use arabic, not roman, numerals for volume, chapter, verse, act, scene, etc.: volume 2, not volume II.

Our preferred style for inclusive numbers is outlined in CMOS-16 section 9.60 or CMOS-17 section 9.61 (e.g., 3-10, 71-72, 96-117, 100-104, 101-9). Other styles are acceptable if consistently followed.

Express dates in month-day-year order (December 2, 1984).

Do not use a comma between month and year (January 2000).

Do not use an apostrophe before the s in references to decades: 1890s.

Avoid numerical references to the first decade of a century. "The 1900s" generally refers to a century, not a decade. For the first decade, use specific years (1900-1909) or a descriptive phrase (the first decade of the twentieth century). Where possible, use specific years or a descriptive phrase for the second decade as well.


Use italics for words and phrases used as words and phrases (argued over the use of nauseous, explained the meaning of liminal) and letters used as letters (sometimes spelled with a lowercase d).

Use italics sparingly for emphasis or irony.

Do not use italics for the word the in periodical titles; the is lowercase and roman in text (He worked for the New York Times.).


Use apostrophe plus s for singular words that end in a pronounced sibilant or unpronounced s:







Spelling and Terms

acknowledgments, not acknowledgements

AD or AD

African American (N, adj both unhyphenated)

a.m. or A.M.







p.m. or P.M.

US (adj only), United States (N)

W. E. B. Du Bois (maintain space between "Du" and "Bois")—to follow style in Levering-Lewis's biography



Do not number short lists unless a step-by-step procedure is described or numbers are essential for in-text references to the list items.


Avoid using abbreviations such as e.g., i.e., and etc. in narrative text.

Do not use cf. ("compare") where you mean See or See also.

Names of Native American tribes form their plural by adding s (the Hopis).


Create a list of discipline-specific terms and usages as well as any treatments that vary from CMOS/M-W style.