Cover for WASHINGTON: Booker T. Washington Papers Volume 4: 1895-98.  Assistant editors, Stuart B. Kaufman, Barbara S. Kraft, and Raymond W. Smock. Click for larger image
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Booker T. Washington Papers Volume 4

1895-98. Assistant editors, Stuart B. Kaufman, Barbara S. Kraft, and Raymond W. Smock

Covering Washington's career from September 1895 - after the Atlanta Compromise address thrust him into prominence as the black spokesman whites were willing to listen to - to December 198, when President William McKinley visited Tuskegee, the papers in this volume demonstrate Washington's growing fame and public acceptance. Throughout this period, although he continued his close paternal watch over Tuskegee, he became increasingly involved with the concerns of the national black community, speaking to overflow audiences of both races all over the country. This was a time of increasing racial segregation as evidenced by the landmark Plessy v. Fergusson decision, which established the "separate but equal" doctrine not only in transportation but in public accommodations and education. Washington reacted strongly to this, and several years later, in response to the rising tide of discrimination, he delivered his controversial Peace Jubilee speech, calling upon the South to bury racial and sectional prejudice in the trenches of San Juan Hill, where black and white, northerner and southerner, had united in a fight for freedom.


"The Washington Papers continue to provide a rich load of material for social historians. Intelligently and imaginatively edited, they illuminate not only the life of Booker T. Washington but the several worlds in which he lived."--Allan H. Spear, Journal of American History

On the subject of Washington "There is no better source to consult than Louis R. Harlan's biography and the first . . . volumes of the Washington papers."--New York Review of Books

"A major enterprise in Black historiography."--Times Literary Supplement


Louis R. Harlan is professor of history at the University of Maryland. He is the author of Separate and Unequal: Public School Campaigns and Racism in the Southern Seaboard States, 1901-1915 (1958), and Booker T. Washington: The Making of a Black Leader, 1856-1901 (1972). Stuart B. Kaufman is assistant professor of history at the University of Maryland. He recently published Samuel Gompers and the Origins of the American Federation of Labor, 1848-1896.. Since 1974 he has been editor of The Samuel Gompers Papers. Barbara S. Kraft, a doctoral candidate at American University, was formerly an editor with Kiplinger Washington Editors. She is co-author of In The Minds and Hearts of the People: Prologue to the American Revolution, 1760-1774 and is currently writing a book on the Henry Ford Peace Expedition. Raymond W. Smock is instructor in history at the University of Maryland, and former editor of the Maryland Historian. He recently published, with Pete Daniel, A Talent for Detail: The Photographs of Miss Frances Benjamin Johnston, 1889-1910.

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