Harry T. Burleigh

From the Spiritual to the Harlem Renaissance

 

BURLEIGH BIBLIOGRAPHY
Selected list of sources

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Allen, William Francis, Charles Pickard Ware and Lucy McKim Garrison. Slave Songs of the United States. New York: A. Simpson & Co., 1867.

Allison, Roland. "Classification of the Vocal Works of Harry T. Burleigh (1866-1949) and Some Suggestions for Their Use in Teaching Diction in Singing." 2 vols. Ph.D. diss., Indiana University, 1965.

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__________. Sinful Tunes and Spirituals: Black Folk Music to the Civil War. Urbana, IL: University of Illinois Press, 1977.

__________. "The Story of the Jubilee Singers: An Introduction to Its Bibliographic History." In New Perspectives on Music: Essays in Honor of Eileen Southern," edited by Josephine Wright and Samuel A. Floyd Jr. Warren, 151-162. MI: Harmonie Park Press, 1992.

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Parrish, Lydia. Slave Songs of the Georgia Sea Islands. Music transcribed by Creighton Churchill and Robert MacGimsey; Introduction by Olin Downes; foreword by Bruce Jackson. Hatboro, PA: Folklore Associates, 1965.

Patterson, Willis. Liner notes for Art Songs by Black American Composers. Ann Arbor, MI: The University of Michigan, 1981.

Payne, Daniel A. History of the African Methodist Episcopal Church. Vol. 1. Nashville: Publishing House of the A.M.E. Sunday-School Union, 1891. Reprint, the Johnson Reprint Corporation, New York, 1968.

__________. Recollections of Seventy Years. Introduction by Francis J. Grimke. New preface by Benjamin Quarles. Reprint, New York: Arno Press and the New York Times, 1969.

Peress, Maurice. Dvorak to Duke Ellington: A Conductor Explores America's Music and Its African American Roots. New York: Oxford University Press, 2004.

Pike, G. D. The Jubilee Singers and Their Campaign for Twenty Thousand Dollars. Boston: Lea and Shepard, 1873.

Radano, Ronald. Lying Up a Nation: Race and Black Music. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2003.

Radano, Ronald and Philip V. Bohlman, eds. Music and Racial Imagination. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2000.

Rainsford, William S. A Preacher's Story of His Work. New York: Outlook Co., 1904.

__________. The Story of a Varied Life: An Autobiography. Garden City, NY: Doubleday, Page and Company, 1922.

Rampersad, Arnold, and David Roessel, eds. The Collected Poems of Langston Hughes, New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1998.

Reaching Out: An Epic of the People of St. Philip's Church. New York: Custombook, 1986.

Riis, Thomas L. "Black Musical Theatre in New York, 1890-1915." Ph.D. diss., University of Michigan, 1991.

__________. "Concert Singers, Prima Donnas, and Entertainers: The Changing Status of Black Women Vocalists in Nineteenth-Century America." In Music and Culture in America, 1861-1918, edited by Michael Saffle, 53-78. New York: Garland, 1998.

__________. "Dvorak and His Black Students." In David R. Beveridge, Rethinking Dvorak, Views from Five Countries, 265. Oxford: Clarendon, 1996.

__________. Just Before Jazz: Black Musical Theatre in New York, 1890-1915. Washington, DC: Smithsonian, 1989.

__________. "More Than Just Minstrel Shows: The Rise of Black Musical Theatre at the Turn of the Century." I.S.A.M. Monographs: Number 33, 1992.

__________. "The Music of A Trip to Coontown." In Music, American Made: Essays in Honor of John Graziano, edited by John Koegel, 421-437. Sterling Heights, MI: Harmonie Park Press, 2011.

__________, "Pink Morton's Theater, Black Vaudeville, and the TOBA: Recovering the History, 1910-30." In New Perspectives on Music: Essays in Honor of Eileen Southern," edited by Josephine Wright and Samuel A. Floyd Jr., 229-243. Warren, MI: Harmonie Park Press, 1992.

__________. Songs and Scripts from "In Dahomey." Madison: A-R Editions, 1997.

Roach, Hildred. Black American Music: Past and Present. 2nd ed. Malabar, FL: Krieger Publishing Co., 1992.

Robeson, Paul. Here I Stand. Beacon Press, 1998. Reprint, New York: John Wiley & Sons, 2001.

Robeson, Paul, Jr. The Undiscovered Paul Robeson: An Artist's Journey, 1898-1939. New York: Paul Wiley & Sons, 2001.

Rohrer, Gertrude Martin. Music and Musicians of Pennsylvania. Philadelphia: Theodore Presser, 1940.

Root, Deane L. "Performing Foster." In Music, American Made: Essays in Honor of John Graziano, edited by John Koegel, 275-310. Sterling Heights, MI: Harmonie Park Press, 2011.

__________. "The Stephen Foster-Antonin Dvorak Connection." In Dvorak in America, 1892-1895, 243. Portland, OR: Amadeus Press, 1993.

Rowland, Mabel. Bert Williams: Son of Laughter. 1923. Reprint, New York: Negro Universities Press, 1969.

Rubin, Emanuel. "Dvorak at the National Conservatory." In Dvo_ák in America, 1892-1895, edited by John C. Tibbetts, 53-81. Portland, OR: Amadeus Press, 1993.

Rydell, Robert W., ed. The Reason Why the Colored American Is Not in the World's Columbian Exposition. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1999.

__________. Fair Representations: World's Fairs and the Modern World. Amsterdam: VU University Press, 1994.

Rydell, Robert W., and Nancy Gwinn, eds. All the World's a Fair: Visions of Empire in American International Expositions, 1876-1916. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1984.

Sack, Saul. History of Higher Education in Pennsylvania. 2 vols. Harrisburg: Pennsylvania Historical and Museum Commission, 1963.

Saffle, Michael, and James R. Heintze. Music and Culture in America, 1861-1918. Essays in American Music 2. London: Routledge, 1998.

Sampson, Henry T. Blacks in Blackface: A Source Book on Early Black Musical Shows. 1980. Reprint, Metuchen, NJ: Scarecrow Press, 1993.

Sanford, Laura. The History of Erie County. 1862. 2nd ed., Philadelphia: J. B. Lippincott & Co., 1892.

Satterlee, Herbert L. J. Pierpont Morgan: An Intimate Portrait. New York: Macmillan, 1940.

Saunders, Steven, and Deane L. Root, eds. The Music of Stephen C. Foster: A Critical Edition. 2 vols. Washington and London: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1990.

Schabas, Ezra. Theodore Thomas: America's Conductor and Builder of Orchestras, 1835-1905. Urbana, IL: Illinois University Press, 1989.

Scarborough, Dorothy. On the Trail of Negro Folk-Songs. With Ola Lee Gulledge. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1925.

Schechter, Patricia A. Ida B. Wells-Barnett and American Reform, 1880-1930. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2000.

Schenbeck, Lawrence. Racial Uplift and American Music 1878-1943. Jackson, MS: University Press of Mississippi, 2012.

Schmalenberger, Sarah. "Harriet Gibbs Marshall and Three Musical Spectacles." In Black Women and Music: More Than the Blues, edited by Eileen M. Hayes and Linda F. Williams. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 2007.

Severance, Frank. "Underground Trails." In Old Trails on the Niagara Frontier, 227-271. Buffalo: Frank Severance, 1899.

Shirley, Wayne. "The Jenkins Orphanage Band and Porgy and Bess." In Music, American Made: Essays in Honor of John Graziano, edited by John Koegel, 497-509. Sterling Heights, MI: Harmonie Park Press, 2011.

Simpson, Anne Key. Hard Trials: The Life and Music of Harry T. Burleigh. Metuchen, NJ: Scarecrow Press, 1990.

Skvorecky, Josef. Dvorak in Love: A Light-hearted Dream. Translated from the Czech by Paul Wilson. Toronto: Lester & Orpen Dennys, 1983.

Smith, Catherine Parsons. William Grant Still: A Study in Contradictions. A Roth Family Foundation Book in American Music. Vol. 2. Music of the African Diaspora. Oakland, CA: University of California Press, 2000.

__________. "William Grant Still's Aesthetic Voice and 'The Africa of My Imagination." In Music, American Made: Essays in Honor of John Graziano, edited John Koegel, 247-260. Sterling Heights, MI: Harmonie Park Press, 2011.

Smith, Eric Ledell. Bert Williams: A Biography of the Pioneer Black Comedian. Jefferson, NC: McFarland & Co., 1992.

Snyder, Jean E. "Burleigh, Harry [Henry] Thacker." International Dictionary of Black Composers. Chicago: Fitzroy Dearborn Publishers, 1999, 186-193.

__________. "'A Great and Noble School of Music': Dvorak, Harry T. Burleigh, and the African-American Spiritual." In Dvorak in America, 1892-1895. Portland, OR: Amadeus Press, 1993, 123-148.

__________. "Harry T. Burleigh and the Creative Expression of Bi-Musicality: A Study of an African American Composer and the American Art Song." Ph.D. diss., University of Pittsburgh, 1992.

__________. Harry T. Burleigh: From the Spiritual to the Harlem Renaissance. Urbana, IL: University of Illinois Press, 2016.

Sourek, Otakar. Antonin Dvorak, His Life and Works. New York: Philosophical Library, Inc., 1954.

Southern, Eileen, ed. African-American Theater. New York and London: Garland Publishing, 1994. A reprint with musical excerpts of two Hyers plays, Out of Bondage (1876), and Peculiar Sam; or The Underground Railroad (1879).

__________. Biographical Dictionary of Afro-American and African Musicians. The Greenwood Encyclopedia of Black Music. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1982.

__________. "An Early Black Concert Company: The Hyers Sisters Combination." In A Celebration of American Music: Words and Music in Honor of H. Wiley Hitchcock, edited by Richard Crawford, R. Allen Lott, and Carol J. Oja, 17-35. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1990.

__________. The Music of Black Americans: A History. 1983. 3rd ed. New York: W. W. Norton, 1997.

__________, Readings in Black American Music. 2nd ed. New York: W. W. Norton, 1983.

Southern, Eileen, and Josephine Wright. Images: Iconography of Music in African-American Culture (1770s-1920s). New York: Routledge, 2000.

__________. African-American Traditions in Song, Sermon, Tale, and Dance, 1600s-1920: An Annotated Bibliography of Literature, Collections, and Artworks. The Greenwood Encyclopedia of Black Music. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1990.

Spearman, Rawn Wardell Sr. "Vocal Music in the Harlem Renaissance." In Black Music in the Harlem Renaissance, edited by Samuel A. Floyd, Jr., 41-54. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1990.

Spencer, Jon Michael. The New Negroes and Their Music: The Success of the Harlem Renaissance. Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press, 1997.

__________. The William Grant Still Reader: Essays on American Music. A Special Issue of Black Sacred Music: A Journal of Theomusicology. Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 1992.

Stefan, Paul. Antonin Dvorak. Translated by Y. W. Vance. 1941. Reprint, New York: Da Capo, 1971.

Still, William Grant. "A Composer's Viewpoint." Black Music in Our Culture. Kent, OH: Kent State University Press, 1972, 93-108.

Tawa, Nicholas E. Sweet Songs for Gentle Americans: The Parlor Song in America, 1790-1860. Bowling Green, OH: Bowling Green University Popular Press, 1980.

Thompson, Sarah S. Journey from Jerusalem: An Illustrated Introduction to Erie's African American History, 1795-1995. With additional research and essay by Karen James. Erie, PA: Erie County Historical Society, 1996.

Tibbetts, John C., ed. Dvorak in America, 1892-1895. Portland, OR: Amadeus Press, 1993.

__________. "The Missing Title Page: Dvorak and the American National Song." In Music and Culture in America, 1861-1918, edited by Michael Saffle, 343-365. New York: Garland Press, 1998.

Tischler, Barbara L. An American Music: The Search for an American Musical Identity. New York: Oxford University Press, 1986.

Toll, Robert C. Blacking Up: The Minstrel Show in Nineteenth-Century America. New York: Oxford University Press, 1977.

Tomatz, David. "Rubin Goldmark, Post Romantic: Trial Balances in American Music." Ph.D. diss., Catholic University of America, 1966.

Toppin, Edgar A. A Biographical History of Blacks in America Since 1528. New York: David McKay, 1969.

Tortolano, William. Samuel Coleridge-Taylor: Anglo-Black Composer, 1875-1912. Rev. 2nd edition. Metuchen, NJ: Scarecrow, 2002.

Touma, Habib Hassan. The Music of the Arabs. Portland, OR: Amadeus Press, 1996.

Trotter, James Monroe. Music and Some Highly Musical People. 1878. Reprint, New York: Johnson Reprint Corporation, 1968.

Turner, Patricia. Dictionary of Afro-American Performers: 78 RPM and Cylinder Recordings of Opera, Choral Music, and Song, c. 1900-1949. New York: Garland, 1990.

Ullman, Victor. Martin Delaney: The Beginnings of Black Nationalism. Boston: Beacon Press, 1971.

Upton, William Treat. Art Song in America: A Study in the Development of American Music. Boston: Ditson, 1930. With a supplement, 1930-1938.

VanVechten, Carl. "Folksong of the American Negro." Vanity Fair, July 1925. In 'Keep A-Inchin' Along': Selected Writings of Carl VanVechten, edited by Bruce Kellner, 34-43. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1979.

W., H. M. "Henry T. Burleigh's Contribution to the Discussion of the True Meaning of 'The New World Symphony.'" Philadelphia Orchestra Program Book. February 24 & 25, 1911, 579-581.

Ward, Andrew. Dark Midnight When I Rise: The Story of the Jubilee Singers Who Introduced the World to the Music of Black America. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 2000.

Waters, Edward M. Victor Herbert, A Life in Music. New York: Macmillan, 1955.

Weaver, David. Black Diva of the Thirties: the Life of Ruby Elzy. Jackson, MS: University Press of Mississippi, 2004.

Weeden, (Maria) Howard. Songs of the Old South. New York: Doubleday, Page and Co., 1901.

Wells, Ida B. Crusade for Justice: The Autobiography of Ida B. Wells. Edited by Alfreda M. Duster. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1971.

Wells-Barnett, Ida B. Wells. The Selected Works of Ida B. Wells-Barnett. New York: Oxford University Press, 1991.

White, Evelyn Davidson. Choral Music by African-American Composers: A Selected Annotated Bibliography. 2nd ed. Metuchen, NJ: Scarecrow, 1996.

__________. Selected Bibliography of Published Choral Music by Black Composers. Washington, DC: Evelyn White, 1975.

White, Walter. The Negro's Contribution to American Culture: The Sudden Flowering of a Genius-Laden Artistic Movement. Little Blue Book No. 1306. Edited by E. Haldeman-Julius. Girard. KS: Haldeman-Julius Publications, 1928.

Wideman, John Edgar, ed. My Soul Has Grown Deep. Philadelphia: Running Press, 2001.

Wiggins, Linda Keck. The Life and Works of Paul Laurence Dunbar. 1896. Reprint, Millwood, NY: Kraus, 1975.

Wilson, Olly. "Interpreting Classical Music." In African American Music: An Introduction, edited by Mellonie Burnim and Portia Maultsby, 230-244. New York: Routledge, 2006.

Winter, Robert. Antonín Dvorák: Symphony from the New World. CD-ROM Companion Series. New York: Voyager, 1994.

Work, John W. II. Folk Songs of the American Negro. 1915. Reprint, New York: Negro Universities Press, 1969.

Work, John W. III. American Negro Songs and Spirituals. New York: Bonanza Books, 1940.

Worth, Paul W. and Jim Cartwright, comps. John McComack: A Comprehensive Discography. Foreword by Gwendolyn McCormack-Pyke. New York: Greenwood Press, 1986.

Wright, J. Ernest. "The Negro in Pittsburgh." WPA Ethnic Survey 1938-1941. Job 64.

Wright, Josephine. "Black Women in Classical Music in Boston During the Late Nineteenth Century: Profiles of Leadership." In New Perspectives on Music: Essays in Honor of Eileen Southern," edited by Josephine Wright and Samuel A. Floyd Jr., 373-407. Warren, MI: Harmonie Park Press, 1992.

__________, ed. New Perspectives on Music: Essays in Honor of Eileen Southern. With Samuel A. Floyd, Jr. Warren, MI: Harmnie Park Press, 1992.

Yengoyan, Aram A. "Culture, Ideology and World's Fairs: Colonizer and Colonized in Comparative Perspectives. In Fair Representations: World's Fairs and the Modern World, edited by Rydell, Robert W., and Nancy Gwinn, 62-83. Amsterdam: VU University Press, 1994.

 

Journal Articles

Abbott, Lynn. "Do Thyself a'no Harm: The Jubilee Singing Phenomenon and the 'Only Original New Orleans University Singers." American Music Research Center Journal 6 (January 1996): 1-47.

Adams, Elbridge L. "The Negro Music School Settlement." Southern Workman 44, no. 3 (March 1915).

Allen, William Duncan. "Musings of a Music Columnist." Black Perspective in Music 1, no. 2 (Fall 1973): 107-114.

Anderson, Marian. "My Deepest Ties to the People." Redbook 132, no. 2 (December 1968): 48-49, 136, 138.

Bacon, Margaret Hope. "Lucy McKim Garrison: Pioneer in Folk Music." Pennsylvania History 54, no. 4 (January 1987): 1-16.

Badger, R. Reid. "James Reese Europe and the Prehistory of Jazz." American Music 7, no. 1 (Spring 1989): 48-67.

Baker, Houston A., Jr. "Paul Laurence Dunbar: An Evaluation." Black World 21, no. 1 (November 1971): 30-37.

Beckerman, Michael. "Dvorak's 'New World' Largo and The Song of Hiawatha" in Nineteenth Century Music 16, no. 1 (Summer 1992), 35-48.

__________. "The Real Value of Yellow Journalism: James Creelman and Antonin Dvorak." Musical Quarterly 77, no. 4 (Winter 1993): 749-768.

Belfour, Stanton. "Charles Avery, Early Pittsburgh Abolitionist." Western Pennsylvania Historical Magazine 43 (1960): 19-22.

Berlin, Edward A. "Cole and Johnson Brothers: The Evolution of 'Ragtime.'" Current Musicology 36 (1983): 21-39.

__________. "On Ragtime: A Different Perspective on Tin Pan Alley." Center for Black Music Research Digest 4, no. 1 (Spring 1991): 1-11.

_________. "On Ragtime: Understanding the Language." Center for Black Music Research Digest 3, no. 3 (Fall 1990): 6-7.

__________. "Scott Joplin's Treemonisha Years." American Music 9, no. 3 (Fall 1991): 260-276.

Currier, T. P. "Edward MacDowell As I Knew Him." Musical Quarterly 1 (1915): 26.

Curtis, Natalie. "Folk-Music of America: Four Types of Folk-Song in the United States Alone." The Craftsman 21, no. 4 (January 1912): 414-420.

__________. "Hampton's Double Mission." Southern Workman (October 1904): 543.

__________. "The Music School Concert." Southern Workman 44, no. 4 (April 1915): 326-7.

__________. "Negro's Contribution to the Music of America." Craftsman 23, no. 6 (March 1913): 660-669. Reprint, New York Age (April 10, 1913): 6. Reprint, Edited by Allon Schoener. Harlem on My Mind. New York: Random House, 26-27.

__________. "The Value of Music School Settlements in Cities." Craftsman 21, no. 3 (December 1911): 283-289.

daBubna, Augusta. "The Negro on the Stage." Theatre Magazine 4 (April 1903): 96-98.

Daily, Maceo Crenshaw, Jr. "The Business Life of Emmett Jay Scott." Business History Review 77, no. 4 (Winter 2003): 667-686.

Dawson, William Levi. "Interpretations of the Religious Folk-songs of the American Negro." Etude 73 (March 1955): 11.

Day, Otha. "Black Musicians in the Claude Barnett Papers." Black Music Research Journal (Fall 1990): 15-17.

deLerma, Dominque-René. "Review: A Concordance of Black Music Entries in Five Encyclopedias: Bakers, Ewen, Groves, MGG, and Rich." Black Music Research Journal 2 (1981-1982): 127-150.

__________. "A Selective List of Choral Music by Black Composers." The Choral Journal (Tampa) 7, no. 8 (April 1972): 5-6.

__________. "The Teacher's Guide to Recent Recordings of Music by Black Composers." College Music Symposium (Fall): 114-119.

Dett, R. Nathaniel. "As the Negro School Sings." Southern Workman 56, no. 7 (July 1927): 304-5.

__________. "The Emancipation of Negro Music." Southern Workman 47, no. 4 (April 1918): 172-176.

__________. "Hampton and Roland Hayes." Southern Workman 53, no. 2 (February 1924): 53-55.

__________. "Negro Music of the Present." Southern Workman 47, no. 5 (May 1918): 243-247.

__________. Review of The Book of American Negro Spirituals. Southern Workman 54 (December 1925): 563-565.

__________. Review of Negro Workaday Songs. Howard W. Odum and Guy B. Johnson. Southern Workman 56, no. 1 (January 1927): 45-6.

__________. Review of St. Helena Island Spirituals. Southern Workman 454, no. 11 (November 1925): 527.

__________. Review of Songs of My People. Southern Workman 48, no. 9 (September 1919).

"Dett: Voicing the 'Universal Language.'" Hampton Institute Hi Lites 4 (January 15, 1983): 1. Reprinted from the Ledger Star. R. Nathaniel Dett Collection. Hampton University Archives.

Diton, Carl R. "The National Association of Negro Musicians. Crisis 26 (May 1923): 21-22.

__________. "The Present Status of Negro-American Musical Endeavor." The Musician 20 (November 1915): 689.

Dormon, James H. "Ethnic Groups and 'Ethnicity': Some Theoretical Considerations." Journal of Ethnic Studies 7 (Winter 1980): 23-36.

__________. "Shaping the Popular Image of Post-Reconstruction American Blacks: The 'Coon Song' Phenomenon of the Gilded Age." American Quarterly 40, no. 4 (1988): 450-71.

__________. "The Strange Career of Jim Crow Rice (With Apologies to Prof. Woodward)." Journal of Social History 3 (Winter 1970): 109-22.

D[ownes]. O[lin]. "Boston Concert of Negro Music." Musical America (December 12, 1914): 26.

__________. "Olin Downes 'Hears America Singing' in Henry Gilbert's 'Negro Rhapsody.'" Musical America (June 28, 1913): 14.

Drury, Theodore. "The Negro in Classic Music; or Leading Opera, Oratorio and Concert Singers." Colored American 5, no. 5 (September 1902): 324-335.

Du Bois, W. E. B.  "The Drama Among Black Folk." Crisis 12, no. 4 (August 1916).

Dvoràk, Antonin. "Music in America." Harper's 90 (February 1895): 428-434.

Epstein, Dena J. "Black Spirituals: Their Emergence into Public Knowledge." Black Music Research Newsletter 8, no. 2 (Spring 1986): 5-8.

__________. "Lucy McKim Garrison, American Musician." Bulletin of New York Public Library 67, no. 8 (October 1963): 528-546.

__________. "A White Origin for the Black Spiritual? An Invalid Theory and How It Grew." American Music 1, no. 2 (1983): 53-9.

Europe, James Reese. "A Negro Explains Jazz." Literary Digest 61, no. 4 (26 April 1919): 28-9.

Farwell, Arthur. "The Ethics of 'Ragtime.'" Musical America (June 22,1912): 24.

Floyd, Samuel A., Jr. "Black American Music and Aesthetic Communication." Black Music Research Journal 1 (1980): 1-17.

__________. "Black Music and Writing Black Music History: American Music and Narrative Strategies." Black Music Research Journal 28, no. 1 (Spring 2008): 111-121.

__________. "The Invisibility and Fame of Harry T. Burleigh: Retrospect and Prospect." Black Music Research Journal 24, no. 2 (Autumn 2004): 179-194.

__________. "Social Dance Music of Black Composers in the Nineteenth Century and the Emergence of Classic Ragtime." The Black Perspective in Music: 161-193.

Gannet, W. C. "The Freedmen at Port Royal." North American Review 208 (July 1865): 1-29.

Graham, Sandra Jean. Review of Lost Sounds: Blacks and the Birth of the Recording Industry, 1890-1919. Current Musicology 81 (Spring 2006): 135-145, 171.

__________. Review of Out of Sight: The Rise of African American Popular Music, 188-185, and Ragged but Right: Black Traveling Shows, 'Coon Songs,' and the Dark Pathway to Blues and Jazz. In Journal of the Society for American Music 5, no. 1 (February 2011): 113-117.

__________. Review of There Breathes a Hope: The Legacy of John Work II and His Fisk Jubilee Quartet, 1909-1916. Journal of the Society for American Music 6, no. 2 (May 2012): 253-255.

Gray, Leon Wilbur. "The Use of Dialect in African-American Spirituals, Popular Songs, and Folk Songs." Black Music Research Journal 24, no. 2 (Fall 2004): 261-286.

Graziano, John. "The Early Life and Career of the 'Black Patti': The Odyssey of an African American Singer in the Late Nineteenth Century." Journal of the American Musicological Society (Fall 2000).

__________. "The Use of Dialect in African-American Spirituals, Popular Songs, and Folk Songs." Black Music Research Journal 24, no. 2 (Autumn 2004): 261-286.

Green, Jeffrey P. "Edmund Jenkins of South Carolina." Black Music Research Journal 30, no. 1 (Spring 2010): 183-195.

__________. "'The Foremost Musician of His Race': Samuel Coleridge-Taylor of England, 1875-1912." Black Music Research Journal 10, no. 2 (Spring 1992): 1-23.

__________. "Roland Hayes in London, 1921." The Black Perspective in Music. (Spring 1982): 29-42.

Harris, Robert A. "African Retentions in American Vocal and Choral Music." The Western Journal of Black Studies 9, no. 3 (1985): 175-182.

Higginson, Thomas Wentworth. "Negro Spirituals." Atlantic Monthly 19, no. 116 (June 1867): 685-694.

Hughes, Langston. "The Negro Artist and the Racial Mountain." The Nation 122 (23 June 1926): 692-694.

James, Willis Laurence. "The Romance of the Negro Folk Cry in America." Phylon 16, no. 1 (1955): 15-39.

Janifer, Ellsworth. "Harry T. Burleigh, Ten Years Later." Phylon 21, no. 2 (1960): 144-154.

Johnson, James Weldon. "The Negro of Today in Music." Charities, (October 7, 1905): 58-59.

Jones, Arthur C. "The Foundational Influence of Spirituals in African-American Culture: A Psychological Perspective." Black Music Research Journal 24, no. 2 (Autumn 2004): 251-260.

Kramer, A. Walter. "Negroes Perform Their Own Music." Musical America (Mar. 21, 1914): 37.

__________. "H. T. Burleigh: Composer by Divine Right and 'The American Coleridge-Taylor.'" Musical America (April 29, 1916): 25.

Krehbiel, Henry E. "Antonin Dvorak." Century Illustrated Monthly Magazine 44, no. 5 (September 1892): 657.

Lee, Henry. "Swing Low, Sweet Chariot." Coronet 22 (July 1947): 54-58.

Locke, Alain. "Freedom Through Art." Crisis (July 1938): 227-229.

__________. "Negro Music Goes to Par." Opportunity (July 1939): 196-200.

__________. "Self-Criticism: The Third Dimension in Culture." Phylon 11, no. 4: 390-394.

__________. "The Technical Study of the Spirituals—A Review." Opportunity (November 1925): 331-332.

__________. "Toward a Critique of Negro Music." Opportunity 12, no. 11 (November 1934): 328-331.

__________. "Postscript." Opportunity 12, no. 12 (December 1934): 354-367, 385.

Locke, Ralph P. "Cutthroats and Casbah Dancers, Meuzzins, & Timeless Sands: Musical Images of the Middle East." Nineteenth Century Music XXII no. 1 (Summer, 1998): 20-53.

__________. "Music Lovers, Patrons, and the 'Sacralization' of Culture in America." 19th Century Music 17, no. 2 (Fall 1993): 149-173.

Long, Richard. "Black Music Biography." Black Music Research Journal (1986): 49-56.

Lott, Eric. "'The Seeming Counterfeit.' Racial Politics and Early Blackface Minstrelsy." American Quarterly 43 (June 1991): 223-254.

Lovell, John, Jr. "The Social Implications of the Negro Spiritual." Journal of Negro Education 8, no. 4 (October 1939): 634-643.

M. "Utilizing the 'Negro Spirituals' for the Concert Platform." Musical America (April 14, 1917): 33.

Maultsby, Portia. "Black Spirituals: An Analysis of Textual Forms and Structure." The Black Perspective in Music 4 (1976): 54-69.

McGinty, Doris Evans. "Aspects of Musical Activities in the Black Communities of Baltimore and Washington, DC, 1840 to the Early 1920s. Black Music Research Center Bulletin 11, no. 2 (Fall 1989): 10-12.

__________. "Gifted Minds and Pure Hearts: Mary L. Europe and Estelle Pinckney Webster." Journal of Negro Education 51, no. 3 (Summer 1982): 266-78.

McLaughlin, Irene Castle. "Jim Europe: A Reminiscence." Opportunity (March 1930): 90-91.

McNamara, Daniel I. "Personalities in Music." "Harry T. Burleigh, A.S.C.A.P." Erie Dispatch-Herald (Aug. 14, 1938).

Moon, Brian. "Harry T. Burleigh as Ethnomusicologist? Transcription, Arranging, and 'The Old Songs Hymnal." Black Music Research Journal 24, no. 2 (Autumn 2004): 287-307.

Murray, Alexander L. "The Provincial Freeman: A New Source for the History of the Negro in Canada and the United States." Journal of Negro History 44 (1959): 123-135.

Murray, Charlotte W. "The Story of Harry T. Burleigh." The Hymn (October 1966): 101-111.

Newland, Marti. "Concert Spirituals and the Fisk Jubilee Singers." American Music Review 40, no. 1 (Fall 2010): 4-5, 14-15.

Nketia, J. H. Kwabena. "African Roots of Music in the Americas." Jamaica Journal, no. 43: 12-17.

__________. "The Study of African and Afro-American Music." The Black Perspective in Music 1, no. 1 (Spring 1973): 7-15.

Patterson, Willis. "The African-American Art Song: A Musical Means for Special Teaching and Learning. Black Music Research Journal 16, no. 2 (Autumn 1996): 303-310.

Peress, Maurice. "Dvorak and African-American Musicians, 1892-1895." Black Music Research Bulletin (Fall 1990): 26-29.

Radano, Ronald. "Denoting Difference: The Writing of the Slave Spirituals." Critical Inquiry 22 (Spring 1996): 506-544.

Riis, Thomas L. "Bob Cole: His Life and Legacy to Black Musical Theatre." The Black Perspective in Music 13, no. 2 (Fall 1985): 135-150.

Rubin, Emanuel. "Jeannette Meyers Thurber and the National Conservatory of Music." American Music 8, no. 3 (Fall 1990): 295-325.

Rudwick, Elliott M. and August Meier. "Black Man in the 'White City': Negroes and the Columbian Exposition, 1893." Phylon 26, no. 4 (Winter 1965): 354-361.

Seagle, Oscar. "The Negro Spiritual." Musical Courier (May 24, 1917).

Sears, Ann. "'A Certain Strangeness': . . ." Black Music Research Journal 24, no. 2 (Autumn 2004): 227-249.

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