Harry T. Burleigh

From the Spiritual to the Harlem Renaissance
Author: Jean E. Snyder
Reclaiming the unique life and soaring art of an essential American composer
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Publication Date
Paperback: 08/31/2021
Cloth: 03/21/2016
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About the Book

Harry T. Burleigh (1866-1949) played a leading role in American music and culture in the twentieth century. Celebrated for his arrangements of spirituals, Burleigh was also the first African American composer to create a significant body of art song. An international roster of opera and recital singers performed his works and praised them as among the best of their time.

Jean E. Snyder traces Burleigh's life from his Pennsylvania childhood through his fifty-year tenure as soloist at St. George's Episcopal Church in Manhattan. As a composer, Burleigh's pioneering work preserved and transformed the African American spiritual; as a music editor, he facilitated the work of other black composers; as a role model, vocal coach, and mentor, he profoundly influenced American song; and in private life he was friends with Antonín Dvořák, Marian Anderson, and Will Marion Cook. Snyder provides rich historical, social, and political contexts that explore Burleigh's professional and personal life within an era complicated by changes in race relations, class expectations, and musical tastes.

Drawing on exhaustive research into archives and family histories, Harry T. Burleigh reclaims the life and art of an essential American composer.

* Publication of this book was supported by grants from the Lloyd Hibberd Endowment of the American Musicological Society, funded in part by the National Endowment for the Humanities and the Andrew W. Mellon Foundation and from the Henry and Edna Binkele Classical Music Fund.

About the Author

Jean E. Snyder is an ethnomusicologist who has taught in Kenya and Zambia, and at several colleges and universities in Pennsylvania.


"The definitive biography of Burleigh. . . . worth reading for anyone interested in the cultural life of African American communities in the “Promised Land” after the Civil War. . . . a worthy addition to any library, personal or institutional, that collects information about black music and important figures in African American history."--Black Grooves

"Dr. Snyder is a good storyteller. Her words flow easily across the page and assure the reader that a rewarding journey lies ahead. . . . Snyder is to be congratulated for her biography of "this grand old man," and her efforts demand the immediate attention of readers."--The American Organist

"In addition to a detailed account of Burleigh's relationships with his contemporaries, his complex marital life, and his successful performing career, Snyder provides valuable musicological analysis of Burleigh's compositions and arrangements. Highly recommended."--Choice


"Jean E. Snyder's brilliant encyclopedic evaluation of the life and legacy of Harry Thacker Burleigh reveals an intriguing lode of personal and professional detail about the iconic singer whose seminal influence in American compositional history is appreciated today by precious few."--George I. Shirley, Grammy Award winner and Director of the Vocal Arts Division, University of Michigan

"By incorporating the unique perspective offered by members of Harry T. Burleigh's family, Jean Snyder makes a valuable and much-needed contribution to the literature on one of the greatest African-American musical figures of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. Moreover, Snyder's work is timely since it coincides with the Burleigh sesquicentennial celebration."--Samuel A. Floyd, Jr., author of The Power of Black Music: Interpreting Its History from Africa to the United States

"The definitive biography of Burleigh, unlikely to be superseded in the near future."--Thomas Riis, author of Just before Jazz: Black Musical Theater in New York, 1890–1915

Supplemental Material


Chapter 1: Hamilton Waters and the Struggle for Freedom and Education

Chapter 2: The Family and Community That Shaped Burleigh's Youth

Chapter 3: Burleigh's Music Experience and Training in Erie

Chapter 8: Foremost Musician and Engaged Citizen

Chapter 9: Burleigh's Singing Career

Chapter 11: Family Matters: Fame and Its Discontents

Chapter 12: Wife and Family of the "Eminent Baritone"

Chapter 13: St. George's Becomes Mr. Burleigh's Church

Chapter 14: A Singer-Composer Learns His Craft

Chapter 15: "Composer by Divine Right"

Chapter 16: Bringing Spirituals to the Concert Stage

Chapter 18: The Impact of a Life




Spreadsheet downloads:

 Burleigh Songs–Solo And Choral—Organized by TITLE

 Burleigh Songs–Solo And Choral—Organized by YEAR

 Burleigh Repertoire by Composer

 Burleigh sings his own songs



Publication of this book was supported by grants from the Lloyd Hibberd Endowment of the American Musicological Society, funded in part by the National Endowment for the Humanities and the Andrew W. Mellon Foundation and from the Henry and Edna Binkele Classical Music Fund.

Ethnomusicologist Jean E. Snyder has taught in Kenya and Zambia, and at several colleges and universities in western Pennsylvania.

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__________. The New Negro: An Interpretation with a new by introduction Allan H. Spear. New York: Johnson Reprint Corporation, 1968.

__________. The New Negro and His Music. New York: Arno Press and The New York Times, 1969.

Locke, Ralph P. "Cutthroats and Casbah Dancers, Meuzzins, &Timeless Sands: Musical Images of the Middle East." In The Exotic in Western Music, 104-136Boston: Northeastern University Press, 1998.

__________. Musical Exoticism: Images and Reflections. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2011.

Lott, Eric. Love and Theft: Blackface Minstrelsy and the American Working Class. New York: Oxford University Press, 1993.

Lovell, John, Jr. Black Song: The Forge and the Flame: The Story of How the Afro-American Spiritual Was Hammered Out. 1972. Reprint, New York: Paragon House Publishers, 1986.

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MacDowell, Edward A. Critical and Historical Essays. Edited by W. J. Baltzell. 1912. Reprint with new introduction by Irving Lowens, New York: Da Capo Press, 1969.

MacLeod, Bruce A. Club Date Musicians: Playing the New York Party Circuit. Champaign-Urbana, IL: Illinois University Press, 1993.

Mahar, William J. Behind the Burnt Cork Mask: Early Blackface Minstrelsy and Antebellum American Popular Culture. Champaign-Urbana, IL: Illinois University Press, 1998.

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__________. The Story of the Jubilee Singers by J. B. T. Marsh, with Supplement Containing an Account of the Six Years' Tour around the World, and Many New Songs, by F. J. Loudin. Cleveland: Cleveland Printing and Publishing Co., 1892.

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__________. Fair Representations: World's Fairs and the Modern World. Amsterdam: VU University Press, 1994.

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Satterlee, Herbert L. J. Pierpont Morgan: An Intimate Portrait. New York: Macmillan, 1940.

Saunders, Steven, and Deane L. Root, eds. The Music of Stephen C. Foster: A Critical Edition. 2 vols. Washington and London: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1990.

Schabas, Ezra. Theodore Thomas: America's Conductor and Builder of Orchestras, 1835-1905. Urbana, IL: Illinois University Press, 1989.

Scarborough, Dorothy. On the Trail of Negro Folk-Songs. With Ola Lee Gulledge. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1925.

Schechter, Patricia A. Ida B. Wells-Barnett and American Reform, 1880-1930. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2000.

Schenbeck, Lawrence. Racial Uplift and American Music 1878-1943. Jackson, MS: University Press of Mississippi, 2012.

Schmalenberger, Sarah. "Harriet Gibbs Marshall and Three Musical Spectacles." In Black Women and Music: More Than the Blues, edited by Eileen M. Hayes and Linda F. Williams. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 2007.

Severance, Frank. "Underground Trails." In Old Trails on the Niagara Frontier, 227-271.Buffalo: Frank Severance, 1899.

Shirley, Wayne. "The Jenkins Orphanage Band and Porgy and Bess." In Music, American Made: Essays in Honor of John Graziano, edited by John Koegel, 497-509. Sterling Heights, MI: Harmonie Park Press, 2011.

Simpson, Anne Key. Hard Trials: The Life and Music of Harry T. Burleigh. Metuchen, NJ: Scarecrow Press, 1990.

Skvorecky, Josef. Dvorak in Love: A Light-hearted Dream. Translated from the Czech by Paul Wilson. Toronto: Lester & Orpen Dennys, 1983.

Smith, Catherine Parsons. William Grant Still: A Study in Contradictions. A Roth Family Foundation Book in American Music. Vol. 2. Music of the African Diaspora. Oakland, CA: University of California Press, 2000.

__________. "William Grant Still's Aesthetic Voice and 'The Africa of My Imagination." In Music, American Made: Essays in Honor of John Graziano, edited John Koegel, 247-260. Sterling Heights, MI: Harmonie Park Press, 2011.

Smith, Eric Ledell. Bert Williams: A Biography of the Pioneer Black Comedian. Jefferson, NC: McFarland & Co., 1992.

Snyder, Jean E. "Burleigh, Harry [Henry] Thacker." International Dictionary of Black Composers. Chicago: Fitzroy Dearborn Publishers, 1999, 186-193.

__________. "'A Great and Noble School of Music': Dvorak, Harry T. Burleigh, and the African-American Spiritual." In Dvorak in America, 1892-1895. Portland, OR: Amadeus Press, 1993, 123-148.

__________. "Harry T. Burleigh and the Creative Expression of Bi-Musicality: A Study of an African American Composer and the American Art Song." Ph.D. diss., University of Pittsburgh, 1992.

__________. Harry T. Burleigh: From the Spiritual to the Harlem Renaissance. Urbana, IL: University of Illinois Press, 2016.

Sourek, Otakar. Antonin Dvorak, His Life and Works. New York: Philosophical Library, Inc., 1954.

Southern, Eileen, ed. African-American Theater. New York and London: Garland Publishing, 1994. A reprint with musical excerpts of two Hyers plays, Out of Bondage (1876), and Peculiar Sam; or The Underground Railroad (1879).

__________. Biographical Dictionary of Afro-American and African Musicians. The Greenwood Encyclopedia of Black Music. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1982.

__________. "An Early Black Concert Company: The Hyers Sisters Combination." In A Celebration of American Music: Words and Music in Honor of H. Wiley Hitchcock, edited by Richard Crawford, R. Allen Lott, and Carol J. Oja, 17-35. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1990.

__________. The Music of Black Americans: A History. 1983. 3rd ed. New York: W. W. Norton, 1997.

__________, Readings in Black American Music. 2nd ed. New York: W. W. Norton, 1983.

Southern, Eileen, and Josephine Wright. Images: Iconography of Music in African-American Culture (1770s-1920s). New York: Routledge, 2000.

__________. African-American Traditions in Song, Sermon, Tale, and Dance, 1600s-1920: An Annotated Bibliography of Literature, Collections, and Artworks. The Greenwood Encyclopedia of Black Music. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1990.

Spearman, Rawn Wardell Sr. "Vocal Music in the Harlem Renaissance." In Black Music in the Harlem Renaissance, edited by Samuel A. Floyd, Jr., 41-54. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1990.

Spencer, Jon Michael. The New Negroes and Their Music: The Success of the Harlem Renaissance. Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press, 1997.

__________. The William Grant Still Reader: Essays on American Music. A Special Issue of Black Sacred Music: A Journal of Theomusicology. Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 1992.

Stefan, Paul. Antonin Dvorak. Translated by Y. W. Vance. 1941. Reprint, New York: Da Capo, 1971.

Still, William Grant. "A Composer's Viewpoint." Black Music in Our Culture. Kent, OH: Kent State University Press, 1972, 93-108.

Tawa, Nicholas E. Sweet Songs for Gentle Americans: The Parlor Song in America, 1790-1860. Bowling Green, OH: Bowling Green University Popular Press, 1980.

Thompson, Sarah S. Journey from Jerusalem: An Illustrated Introduction to Erie's African American History, 1795-1995. With additional research and essay by Karen James. Erie, PA: Erie County Historical Society, 1996.

Tibbetts, John C., ed. Dvorak in America, 1892-1895. Portland, OR: Amadeus Press, 1993.

__________. "The Missing Title Page: Dvorak and the American National Song." In Music and Culture in America, 1861-1918, edited by Michael Saffle, 343-365. New York: Garland Press, 1998.

Tischler, Barbara L. An American Music: The Search for an American Musical Identity. New York: Oxford University Press, 1986.

Toll, Robert C. Blacking Up: The Minstrel Show in Nineteenth-Century America. New York: Oxford University Press, 1977.

Tomatz, David. "Rubin Goldmark, Post Romantic: Trial Balances in American Music." Ph.D. diss., Catholic University of America, 1966.

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Tortolano, William. Samuel Coleridge-Taylor: Anglo-Black Composer, 1875-1912. Rev. 2nd edition. Metuchen, NJ: Scarecrow, 2002.

Touma, Habib Hassan. The Music of the Arabs. Portland, OR:Amadeus Press, 1996.

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Turner, Patricia. Dictionary of Afro-American Performers: 78 RPM and Cylinder Recordings of Opera, Choral Music, and Song, c. 1900-1949. New York: Garland, 1990.

Ullman, Victor. Martin Delaney: The Beginnings of Black Nationalism. Boston: Beacon Press, 1971.

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VanVechten, Carl. "Folksong of the American Negro." Vanity Fair, July 1925. In 'Keep A-Inchin' Along': Selected Writings of Carl VanVechten, edited by Bruce Kellner, 34-43. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1979.

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Ward, Andrew. Dark Midnight When I Rise: The Story of the Jubilee Singers Who Introduced the World to the Music of Black America. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 2000.

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Weaver, David. Black Diva of the Thirties: the Life of Ruby Elzy. Jackson, MS: University Press of Mississippi, 2004.

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White, Evelyn Davidson. Choral Music by African-American Composers: A Selected Annotated Bibliography. 2nd ed. Metuchen, NJ: Scarecrow, 1996.

__________. Selected Bibliography of Published Choral Music by Black Composers. Washington, DC: Evelyn White, 1975.

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__________, ed. New Perspectives on Music: Essays in Honor of Eileen Southern. With Samuel A. Floyd, Jr. Warren, MI: Harmnie Park Press, 1992.

Yengoyan, Aram A. "Culture, Ideology and World's Fairs: Colonizer and Colonized in Comparative Perspectives. In Fair Representations: World's Fairs and the Modern World, edited by Rydell, Robert W., and Nancy Gwinn, 62-83. Amsterdam: VU University Press, 1994.


Journal Articles

Abbott, Lynn. "Do Thyself a'no Harm: The Jubilee Singing Phenomenon and the 'Only Original New Orleans University Singers." American Music Research Center Journal 6 (January 1996): 1-47.

Adams, Elbridge L. "The Negro Music School Settlement." Southern Workman 44, no. 3 (March 1915).

Allen, William Duncan. "Musings of a Music Columnist." Black Perspective in Music 1, no. 2 (Fall 1973): 107-114.

Anderson, Marian. "My Deepest Ties to the People." Redbook 132, no. 2 (December 1968): 48-49, 136, 138.

Bacon, Margaret Hope. "Lucy McKim Garrison: Pioneer in Folk Music." Pennsylvania History 54, no. 4 (January 1987): 1-16.

Badger, R. Reid. "James Reese Europe and the Prehistory of Jazz." American Music 7, no. 1 (Spring 1989): 48-67.

Baker, Houston A., Jr. "Paul Laurence Dunbar: An Evaluation." Black World 21, no. 1 (November 1971): 30-37.

Beckerman, Michael. "Dvorak's 'New World' Largo and The Song of Hiawatha" in Nineteenth Century Music 16, no. 1(Summer 1992), 35-48.

__________. "The Real Value of Yellow Journalism: James Creelman and Antonin Dvorak." Musical Quarterly 77, no. 4 (Winter 1993): 749-768.

Belfour, Stanton. "Charles Avery, Early Pittsburgh Abolitionist." Western Pennsylvania Historical Magazine 43 (1960): 19-22.

Berlin, Edward A. "Cole and Johnson Brothers: The Evolution of 'Ragtime.'" Current Musicology 36 (1983): 21-39.

__________. "On Ragtime: A Different Perspective on Tin Pan Alley." Center for Black Music Research Digest 4, no. 1 (Spring 1991): 1-11.

_________. "On Ragtime: Understanding the Language." Center for Black Music Research Digest 3, no. 3 (Fall 1990): 6-7.

__________. "Scott Joplin's Treemonisha Years." American Music 9, no. 3 (Fall 1991): 260-276.

Currier, T. P. "Edward MacDowell As I Knew Him." Musical Quarterly 1 (1915): 26.

Curtis, Natalie. "Folk-Music of America: Four Types of Folk-Song in the United States Alone." The Craftsman 21, no. 4 (January 1912): 414-420.

__________. "Hampton's Double Mission." Southern Workman (October 1904): 543.

__________. "The Music School Concert." Southern Workman 44, no. 4 (April 1915): 326-7.

__________. "Negro's Contribution to the Music of America." Craftsman 23, no. 6 (March 1913): 660-669. Reprint, New York Age (April 10, 1913): 6. Reprint, Edited by Allon Schoener. Harlem on My Mind. New York: Random House, 26-27.

__________. "The Value of Music School Settlements in Cities." Craftsman 21, no. 3 (December 1911): 283-289.

daBubna, Augusta. "The Negro on the Stage." Theatre Magazine 4 (April 1903): 96-98.

Daily, Maceo Crenshaw, Jr. "The Business Life of Emmett Jay Scott." Business History Review 77, no. 4 (Winter 2003): 667-686.

Dawson, William Levi. "Interpretations of the Religious Folk-songs of the American Negro." Etude 73 (March 1955): 11.

Day, Otha. "Black Musicians in the Claude Barnett Papers." Black Music Research Journal (Fall 1990): 15-17.

deLerma, Dominque-Ren�. "Review: A Concordance of Black Music Entries in Five Encyclopedias: Bakers, Ewen, Groves, MGG, and Rich." Black Music Research Journal 2 (1981-1982): 127-150.

__________. "A Selective List of Choral Music by Black Composers." The Choral Journal (Tampa) 7, no. 8 (April 1972): 5-6.

__________. "The Teacher's Guide to Recent Recordings of Music by Black Composers." College Music Symposium (Fall): 114-119.

Dett, R. Nathaniel. "As the Negro School Sings." Southern Workman 56, no. 7 (July 1927): 304-5.

__________. "The Emancipation of Negro Music." Southern Workman 47, no. 4 (April 1918): 172-176.

__________. "Hampton and Roland Hayes." Southern Workman 53, no. 2 (February 1924): 53-55.

__________. "Negro Music of the Present." Southern Workman 47, no. 5 (May 1918): 243-247.

__________. Review of The Book of American Negro Spirituals. Southern Workman 54 (December 1925): 563-565.

__________. Review of Negro Workaday Songs. Howard W. Odum and Guy B. Johnson. Southern Workman 56, no. 1 (January 1927): 45-6.

__________. Review of St. Helena Island Spirituals. Southern Workman 454, no. 11 (November 1925): 527.

__________. Review of Songs of My People. Southern Workman 48, no. 9 (September 1919).

"Dett: Voicing the 'Universal Language.'" Hampton Institute Hi Lites 4 (January 15, 1983): 1. Reprinted from the Ledger Star. R. Nathaniel Dett Collection. Hampton University Archives.

Diton, Carl R. "The National Association of Negro Musicians. Crisis 26 (May 1923): 21-22.

__________. "The Present Status of Negro-American Musical Endeavor." The Musician 20 (November 1915): 689.

Dormon, James H. "Ethnic Groups and 'Ethnicity': Some Theoretical Considerations." Journal of Ethnic Studies 7 (Winter 1980): 23-36.

__________. "Shaping the Popular Image of Post-Reconstruction American Blacks: The 'Coon Song' Phenomenon of the Gilded Age." American Quarterly 40, no. 4 (1988): 450-71.

__________. "The Strange Career of Jim Crow Rice (With Apologies to Prof. Woodward)." Journal of Social History 3 (Winter 1970): 109-22.

D[ownes]. O[lin]. "Boston Concert of Negro Music." Musical America (December 12, 1914): 26.

__________. "Olin Downes 'Hears America Singing' in Henry Gilbert's 'Negro Rhapsody.'" Musical America (June 28, 1913): 14.

Drury, Theodore. "The Negro in Classic Music; or Leading Opera, Oratorio and Concert Singers." Colored American 5, no. 5 (September 1902): 324-335.

Du Bois, W. E. B.  "The Drama Among Black Folk." Crisis 12, no. 4 (August 1916).

Dvoràk, Antonin. "Music in America." Harper's 90 (February 1895): 428-434.

Epstein, Dena J. "Black Spirituals: Their Emergence into Public Knowledge." Black Music Research Newsletter 8, no. 2 (Spring 1986): 5-8.

__________. "Lucy McKim Garrison, American Musician." Bulletin of New York Public Library 67, no. 8 (October 1963): 528-546.

__________. "A White Origin for the Black Spiritual? An Invalid Theory and How It Grew." American Music 1, no. 2 (1983): 53-9.

Europe, James Reese. "A Negro Explains Jazz." Literary Digest 61, no. 4 (26 April 1919): 28-9.

Farwell, Arthur. "The Ethics of 'Ragtime.'" Musical America (June 22,1912): 24.

Floyd, Samuel A., Jr. "Black American Music and Aesthetic Communication." Black Music Research Journal 1 (1980): 1-17.

__________. "Black Music and Writing Black Music History: American Music and Narrative Strategies." Black Music Research Journal 28, no. 1 (Spring 2008): 111-121.

__________. "The Invisibility and Fame of Harry T. Burleigh: Retrospect and Prospect." Black Music Research Journal 24, no. 2 (Autumn 2004): 179-194.

__________. "Social Dance Music of Black Composers in the Nineteenth Century and the Emergence of Classic Ragtime." The Black Perspective in Music: 161-193.

Gannet, W. C. "The Freedmen at Port Royal." North American Review 208 (July 1865): 1-29.

Graham, Sandra Jean. Review of Lost Sounds: Blacks and the Birth of the Recording Industry, 1890-1919. Current Musicology 81 (Spring 2006): 135-145, 171.

__________. Review of Out of Sight: The Rise of African American Popular Music, 188-185, and Ragged but Right: Black Traveling Shows, 'Coon Songs,' and the Dark Pathway to Blues and Jazz. In Journal of the Society for American Music 5, no. 1 (February 2011): 113-117.

__________. Review of There Breathes a Hope: The Legacy of John Work II and His Fisk Jubilee Quartet, 1909-1916. Journal of the Society for American Music 6, no. 2 (May 2012): 253-255.

Gray, Leon Wilbur. "The Use of Dialect in African-American Spirituals, Popular Songs, and Folk Songs." Black Music Research Journal 24, no. 2 (Fall 2004): 261-286.

Graziano, John. "The Early Life and Career of the 'Black Patti': The Odyssey of an African American Singer in the Late Nineteenth Century." Journal of the American Musicological Society (Fall 2000).

__________. "The Use of Dialect in African-American Spirituals, Popular Songs, and Folk Songs." Black Music Research Journal 24, no. 2 (Autumn 2004): 261-286.

Green, Jeffrey P. "Edmund Jenkins of South Carolina." Black Music Research Journal 30, no. 1 (Spring 2010): 183-195.

__________. "'The Foremost Musician of His Race': Samuel Coleridge-Taylor of England, 1875-1912." Black Music Research Journal 10, no. 2 (Spring 1992): 1-23.

__________. "Roland Hayes in London, 1921." The Black Perspective in Music. (Spring 1982): 29-42.

Harris, Robert A. "African Retentions in American Vocal and Choral Music." The Western Journal of Black Studies 9, no. 3 (1985): 175-182.

Higginson, Thomas Wentworth. "Negro Spirituals." Atlantic Monthly 19, no. 116 (June 1867): 685-694.

Hughes, Langston. "The Negro Artist and the Racial Mountain." The Nation 122 (23 June 1926): 692-694.

James, Willis Laurence. "The Romance of the Negro Folk Cry in America." Phylon 16, no. 1 (1955): 15-39.

Janifer, Ellsworth. "Harry T. Burleigh, Ten Years Later." Phylon 21, no. 2 (1960): 144-154.

Johnson, James Weldon. "The Negro of Today in Music." Charities, (October 7, 1905): 58-59.

Jones, Arthur C. "The Foundational Influence of Spirituals in African-American Culture: A Psychological Perspective." Black Music Research Journal 24, no. 2 (Autumn 2004): 251-260.

Kramer, A. Walter. "Negroes Perform Their Own Music." Musical America (Mar. 21, 1914): 37.

__________. "H. T. Burleigh: Composer by Divine Right and 'The American Coleridge-Taylor.'" Musical America (April 29, 1916): 25.

Krehbiel, Henry E. "Antonin Dvorak." Century Illustrated Monthly Magazine 44, no. 5 (September 1892): 657.

Lee, Henry. "Swing Low, Sweet Chariot." Coronet 22 (July 1947): 54-58.

Locke, Alain. "Freedom Through Art." Crisis (July 1938): 227-229.

__________. "Negro Music Goes to Par." Opportunity (July 1939): 196-200.

__________. "Self-Criticism: The Third Dimension in Culture." Phylon 11, no. 4: 390-394.

__________. "The Technical Study of the Spirituals�A Review." Opportunity (November 1925): 331-332.

__________. "Toward a Critique of Negro Music." Opportunity 12, no. 11 (November 1934): 328-331.

__________. "Postscript." Opportunity 12, no. 12 (December 1934): 354-367, 385.

Locke, Ralph P. "Cutthroats and Casbah Dancers, Meuzzins, & Timeless Sands: Musical Images of the Middle East." Nineteenth Century Music XXII no. 1 (Summer, 1998): 20-53.

__________. "Music Lovers, Patrons, and the 'Sacralization' of Culture in America." 19th Century Music 17, no. 2 (Fall 1993): 149-173.

Long, Richard. "Black Music Biography." Black Music Research Journal (1986): 49-56.

Lott, Eric. "'The Seeming Counterfeit.' Racial Politics and Early Blackface Minstrelsy." American Quarterly 43 (June 1991): 223-254.

Lovell, John, Jr. "The Social Implications of the Negro Spiritual." Journal of Negro Education 8, no. 4 (October 1939): 634-643.

M. "Utilizing the 'Negro Spirituals' for the Concert Platform." Musical America (April 14, 1917): 33.

Maultsby, Portia. "Black Spirituals: An Analysis of Textual Forms and Structure." The Black Perspective in Music 4(1976): 54-69.

McGinty, Doris Evans. "Aspects of Musical Activities in the Black Communities of Baltimore and Washington, DC, 1840 to the Early 1920s. Black Music Research Center Bulletin 11, no. 2 (Fall 1989): 10-12.

__________. "Gifted Minds and Pure Hearts: Mary L. Europe and Estelle Pinckney Webster." Journal of Negro Education 51, no. 3 (Summer 1982): 266-78.

McLaughlin, Irene Castle. "Jim Europe: A Reminiscence." Opportunity (March 1930): 90-91.

McNamara, Daniel I. "Personalities in Music." "Harry T. Burleigh, A.S.C.A.P." Erie Dispatch-Herald (Aug. 14, 1938).

Moon, Brian. "Harry T. Burleigh as Ethnomusicologist? Transcription, Arranging, and 'The Old Songs Hymnal." Black Music Research Journal 24, no. 2 (Autumn 2004): 287-307.

Murray, Alexander L. "The Provincial Freeman: A New Source for the History of the Negro in Canada and the United States." Journal of Negro History 44 (1959): 123-135.

Murray, Charlotte W. "The Story of Harry T. Burleigh." The Hymn (October 1966): 101-111.

Newland, Marti. "Concert Spirituals and the Fisk Jubilee Singers." American Music Review 40, no. 1 (Fall 2010): 4-5, 14-15.

Nketia, J. H. Kwabena. "African Roots of Music in the Americas." Jamaica Journal,no. 43: 12-17.

__________. "The Study of African and Afro-American Music." The Black Perspective in Music 1, no. 1 (Spring 1973): 7-15.

Patterson, Willis. "The African-American Art Song: A Musical Means for Special Teaching and Learning. Black Music Research Journal 16, no. 2 (Autumn 1996): 303-310.

Peress, Maurice. "Dvorak and African-American Musicians, 1892-1895." Black Music Research Bulletin (Fall 1990): 26-29.

Radano, Ronald. "Denoting Difference: The Writing of the Slave Spirituals." Critical Inquiry 22 (Spring 1996): 506-544.

Riis, Thomas L. "Bob Cole: His Life and Legacy to Black Musical Theatre." The Black Perspective in Music 13, no. 2 (Fall 1985): 135-150.

Rubin, Emanuel. "Jeannette Meyers Thurber and the National Conservatory of Music." American Music 8, no. 3 (Fall 1990): 295-325.

Rudwick, Elliott M. and August Meier. "Black Man in the 'White City': Negroes and the Columbian Exposition, 1893." Phylon 26, no. 4 (Winter 1965): 354-361.

Seagle, Oscar. "The Negro Spiritual." Musical Courier (May 24, 1917).

Sears, Ann. "'A Certain Strangeness': . . ." Black Music Research Journal 24, no. 2 (Autumn 2004): 227-249.

Shelly, H. R. "Dvorak As I Knew Him." Etude 31 (August 1913): 541-542.

Smith, Eric Ledell. "The End of Black Voting Rights in Pennsylvania: African Americans and the Pennsylvania Constitutional Convention of 1837-1838." Pennsylvania History 65, no. 3 (Summer 1998): 279-299.

Smith, Joseph. "Practicing and Performing Burleigh's 'Hiding-Place." Unidentified clipping. CBMR 15771.

__________. "What You Learn When You Edit." Piano & Keyboard (July/August 1998): 16-18.

Snyder, Jean E. "Harry T. Burleigh, 'One of Erie's Most Popular Church Singers." Black Music Research Journal 24, no. 2 (Autumn 2004): 195-225.

Southern, Eileen. "America's Black Composers of Classical Music: Because We Are Black, We Are Making Black Music!" Music Educators Journal 62, no. 3 (November 1965): 48.

__________. "In Retrospect: Black-Music Concerts in Carnegie Hall, 1912-1915." The Black Perspective in Music 6, no. 1 (Spring 1978): 71-88.

__________. "Music Research and the Black Aesthetic." Black World 23, no. 1 (Nov. 1973): 4-13.

Stevenson, Robert. "America's First Black Music Historian." Journal of the American Musicological Society 22 (Fall 973).

Stowe, William McFerrin., Jr. "Damned Funny: The Tragedy of Bert Williams." Journal of Popular Culture 10, no. 1 (Summer 1976): 5-13.

Tallmadge, William. "The Black in Jackson's White Spirituals." The Black Perspective in Music 9 (1981): 139-160.

Taylor, Darryl. "The Importance of Studying African-American Art Song." The Journal of Singing 54, no. 3 (1998).

Walker, George W. "The Real 'Coon' on the American Stage." Theatre Magazine (August 1906): 225.

Whalum, Wendell Phillips. "James Weldon Johnson's Theories and Performance Practices of Afro-American Folksong." Phylon (Special James Weldon Johnson Centennial Issue), (December 1971): 383-394.

White, Lucien H. "Negro Music�A Review." Crisis (July 1938): 217-219.

Woodson, C. G. "Harry Thacker Burleigh." The Journal of Negro History 35, no. 1 (January 1950): 104-105.

Work, John W. III. "Changing Patterns in Negro Folk Songs." Journal of American Folklore 62 (1949): 136.

Zeckwer, Camille W. "Dvorák as I Knew Him." Etude (November 1919): 694.


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